Let's analyze one of the train routes in Metro Manila as an advertising medium using its ceiling speakers.
The LRT Line 2, is a 13.8 km mass transit line that traverses five cities in Metro Manila (namely Pasig, Marikina, Quezon City, San Juan and Manila).
Few days back I travelled taking the LRT train from Santolan to Recto. I noticed their audio reminder. I also know that the voice talent is my partner (Brian Ligsay) in CADIO. Upon returning back to Santolan station, I decided to count the number of reminder's repetition. Below are the details:
1. LRT Recto: left at 11:22 AM Jan. 4, 2013.
> 1st time heard the LRT Reminder.
2. LRT Legarda: arrived at 11:24 AM Jan. 4, 2013.
3. LRT Puresza: arrived at 11:27 AM Jan. 4, 2013.
4. LRT V Mapa: arrived at 11:29 AM Jan. 4, 2013.
> 2nd time heard the LRT Reminder.
5. LRT J Ruiz: arrived at 11:31 AM Jan. 4, 2013.
6. LRt Gilmore: arrived at 11:33 AM Jan. 4, 2013.
7. LRT Betty Go-Belmonte: arrived at 11:35 AM Jan. 4, 2013.
> 3rd time heard the LRT Reminder.
8. LRT Araneta Center-Cubao: arrived at 11:38 AM Jan. 4, 2013.
9. LRT Anonas: arrived at 11:40 AM Jan. 4, 2013.
> 4th time heard the LRT Reminder.
10. LRT Santolan: arrived at 11:46 AM Jan. 4, 2013.
A total of 25-minute-travelling time. Once you leave the LRT station, you'll surely remember some of the phrases from its LRT audio reminders. This four-repetition is effective. The management of LRT is not aware that what they did was part of the "average staying time" (AST) that I made. Four-repetition using the AIDA principle (1st Attention, 2nd Interest, 3rd Decision and 4th Action) is really effective. People got no choice but to hear its LRT reminder. Passengers tend to look in different directions but their ears are open for audio reminders and commercials. By the way, each train has its own Public Address System (PAS) from which a recorded computerized announcement of each station stop emanates. The PAS could transmit music for a relaxing journey. If they can turn that PAS and reminders into spot commercials; then that would give them additional income. The Purple Line trains can accommodate up to 1,628 passengers; even if there were elderly and physically disabled on board who are provided with space for their own wheelchairs and mobility tools, alongside the fiberglass reinforced plastic benches. This is what advertisers need.
Half of the money spent on advertising is wasted; the trouble is, we don't know which half. Advertisers can't really witness the market if their commercials are being watched and listened to if it's done in a PRIVATE CAPTIVE MARKET. Value on ad spending decreases if advertisers can't witness their target market. TV viewers get annoyed with commercial breaks especially during the time of climax (a time when they enjoy watching their favorite show and suddenly, a commercial break comes-in); then the image of that brand decreases. Advertisers would agree that CAPTIVE MARKET is a strategy that gives high value on advertising investment. But what kind of CAPTIVE MARKET? Is it the PRIVATE or the PUBLIC one? Narrowcasting using CADIO focuses on the PUBLIC CAPTIVE MARKET. This is a strategy that gives the market a no choice but to hear (and later in the future view) the commercial... This is why audio is the highest form of advertising not video.
Actually, when narrowcasting was coined by Licklider in his book "Televistas" in 1967; his main point was the cables of CATV will evolve into multipurpose local networks, and the local networks will be linked together to form regional, national, and even international networks. During those years, there were very few commercial establishments and they weren't part of his thesis. The narrowcasting in the Philippines is a unique one. It focuses in maximizing the ceiling/wall speakers of commercial establishments for advertising purposes. This is the real narrowcasting.
Most of the online pop-up ads and the mobile ads are annoying the market. People are not asking for them and yet they come in unexpectedly. If you bother the eyes, a negative image on the brand is expected. So the best way is to advertise by targeting the ears. But it must not be on the listening side; instead, it should be on the hearing part. If listening is for broadcasting; then hearing is for narrowcasting. Narrowcasting aims at putting real value on advertising by not really bothering people on its ads. Narrowcasting wants to build a positive image on its brands. If the market is focusing on something and something comes in unexpectedly, then naturally, the market gets bothered. Nobody wants interruption when a person is focusing on something. It's like playing darts or shooting a ball into the basketball ring. Unless a person is professional in his chosen field, then anything that will bother him in targeting his goal doesn't affect him anymore. So when you watch NBA and Lebron is on the free throw and some people are booing him when he's about to shoot the ball; you'll be amazed that he can still shoot the ball and gets a point even many are bothering him. This is because he is a professional in his field. Meaning, crowd noise of booing doesn't bother him and it's ok because it's part of his training. But when it comes to doing other stuff like buying, doing a window shopping or surfing the internet; nobody wants to be bothered because these are normal activities. You don't need to be trained and become a professional to do these things, right? Now when the market gets inside an establishment and hears something, then that's not really annoying him because he doesn't have a focus yet. Even he is holding what he is about to buy, there is no annoyance in that area as long as the audio music/ad that he heard doesn't reach a noise level. Noise level comes in when the person covers his ears. This is the annoying part in hearing something. Other than that, focusing on the hearing strategy is the best way to achieve high level of "captive market."
Most of the online pop-up ads and the mobile ads are annoying the market. People are not asking for them and yet they come in unexpectedly. If you bother the eyes, a negative image on the brand is expected. So the best way is to advertise by targeting the ears. But it must not be on the listening side; instead, it should be on the hearing side. If listening is for broadcasting; then hearing is for narrowcasting. Narrowcasting aims at putting real value on advertising by not really bothering people on its ads. Narrowcasting wants to build a positive image on its brands. If the market is focusing on one thing and something comes in unexpectedly; then naturally, the market gets bothered. Nobody wants interruption when a person is focusing on something. It's like playing darts or shooting a ball into the basketball ring. Unless a person is professional in his chosen field, then anything that will bother him in targeting his goal doesn't affect him anymore. So when you watch NBA and LeBron James is on the free throw and some people are booing him when he's about to shoot the ball; you'll be amazed that he can still shoot the ball and gets a point even many people are bothering him. This is because he is a professional in his field. Meaning, crowd noise of booing him doesn't bother him anymore and it's ok because it's part of his training. But when it comes to doing other stuff like buying, doing a window shopping or surfing the internet; nobody wants to be bothered because it is a normal activity. People here, don't need to be trained and become a professional to do the activity. Likewise, when the market gets inside an establishment and hears something, then that's not really annoying him because he doesn't have a focus yet. Even he is holding what he is about to buy, there is no annoyance in that area as long as the audio music/ad that he hears doesn't reach a noise level. Noise level comes in when the person covers his ears. This is the annoying part in hearing something. Other than that, focusing on the hearing strategy is the best way to achieve a high level of "captive market."
It's not really a good idea to give constructive criticism to your prospect but if you consider your company a consulting firm; then messages like this is ethical especially if your main goal is to educate your prospect. It is not all about having more clients but more on having decent deals through building relation to your clients.
Here’s a situational analysis from a prospect who didn’t know how to value our talents and skills. Because they are big, they don’t follow what is written in the quotation and terms of making an audio commercial for their mall. This audio production is suppose to be used for their motorcade. This prospect is a known mall in the Philippines. On the other hand, I’m also one of their customers since I always buy my clothes in their mall. Now this is how I sounded........
Your marketing department told me that you prefer a female talent after hearing my first audio production that you asked for..... Our forte and specialization is narrowcasting and broadcasting (I was once a broadcaster/FM DJ). I'm sure you have an ad agency who has given you already of an image for your targeted market but when I was asked to make the production, there were no information about your image. You should have told me about your requirements before I did the production. We practice fast service, provide professional VOs and high quality audio production that's why a multinational company with so many branches in the world has trusted us (not to mention the name). I was the one who made their standard script for all their store openings. We've been their audio production supplier since 2006. But when I gave you the production I made, you changed your minds. Two revisions are fine with me but 3 is too much for a three-thousand-peso deal. I can still take it for the last time. I hope you understand our market value. We are not asking you a high price. There was no narrowcast/broadcast order made from your side and you keep on asking us to produce the commercial. I respect your SOP but I hope you'll put value on our effort and time spent for this production.
Here's a talent's market value analysis:
If you want a professional voice over talent (broadcaster or former broadcaster), the lowest talent fee whether you get a female or male VO is around Php 3,000 for narrowcasting. Narrowcasting focuses on a particular place or target/niche market. Most broadcasters are not aware of it. This is why they are having a hard time lowering down their talent fees because there is no industry in narrowcasting yet in our country. So if we get the female VO at 3k, then you also have to pay us for the production and scouting of talent at 3k. Now the total is Php6,000. Here's another problem, you have to give me one week to get a talent and still needs to be auditioned. This is a waste of time on your end.
Let's put it this way, again, our forte and focus is narrowcasting. People prefer the internet and this is our problem in our industry. Meaning, radio listeners are decreasing. Why don't you just try looking for other suppliers and see the big difference. If you get a better deal then that is fine with me....
When I make an analysis, I want to make sure that it has real value because if it doesn't; then I'll lose my credibility. I'm not perfect, I still screw up but I always try my best to make things perfect. I'm the only one doing narrowcasting in the Philippines and you can google it... So if I make a recommendation, I hope that you will respect it. If not, you just have to look for other suppliers.
Few years back, I used to host most of the 3-day sale event for your mall so I understand your market. About two years ago, someone from your team told me that your mall is shifting to a different market and that's the AB crowd. Back then, I got confused. I was told to speak in straight English when I hosted an event there back then. I got no choice but to follow because it's your SOP even I see a lot of CD crowd. For me, if you change the image of your mall, you can't still control the CD crowd entering your place, right? Can you ask the guards to check the market if it's an A B C or D class? And if so, can you also tell to your guard, "Guard, wag mong papasukin yung mga masa ang itsura (Guard, don’t let the CD crowd/masses come in)." If you do that, then that is discrimination. You already have regular customers and why change the image? You mean, you just have to change a market approach even it is not being appreciated? You think speaking straight English will be appreciated by the CD crowd? Maybe yes, maybe no. You better go back to Taglish. I sounded so corny when I last hosted there.
Analysis on your target market:
Ok, you cater to the AB crowd so what I did is a VO delivery that I believe your market can appreciate. But based on your practice, I'm puzzled with the way you deal with your market. David Ogilvy once said "your market is like your wife, so don't insult her intelligence. You want to have an excited message delivery but you are targeting the AB crowd. Take for instance Manny Pacquiao. He came from the CD crowd but now considered an AB class person. If I tell him about your "Sale," with excitement, you think, he will appreciate it? Be on his shoes, how will he be excited about if he can afford to buy your stuff even if it's not a sale. He's rich and he prefers going to a mall that has no long lines of paying an item. It's already a mindset that if it's a sale, the CD crowd will take advantage of it. So why make it an excited delivery? On the other hand, narrowcasting is more of the hearing approach and broadcasting is more of the listening. When you play a 30-second commercial on radio, maybe about 70% of the listeners will learn your ad message. But in narrowcasting, people don't listen, they just hear the audio commercial. It's all about having an attention getter to make them listen. This is why narrawcasting has a different approach when compared to broadcasting. Actually, we practice finding the average staying time (AST) and our goal is to repeat the commercial 4 times. Why? It's called AIDA (attention, interest, decision and action). It takes four repetitions before a commercial gets into the brain either through listening or hearing. In a motorcade case, no need to know the AST because you loop the commercial spot. So that's fine. If you want this audio
item to be played in your mall on a loop, that's also fine. But it bothers the market with so many repetitions. This is why we committed to give you a free one-hour canned program. It's a mixed down of music and your commercials that sounded like an FM radio program format once you play it. It's your prerogative to play it or not. Another thing, if you expect your market will just hear your commercial, how come you are very particular with a voice talent? You think your market will complain because they don't like the voice over or the delivery of your message? What I'm doing here is trying to please you and not your market. Well, that's the typical way of doing business. But in advertising, we care more about the needs of our client's market. If you can give us an explanation on your marketing style and I learned that we won't fit with your standards; then we'll just drop this deal.
Please make sure that the script that you sent us is final. So we can proceed to the final production.
If you have other comments, please call me in my cellphone ______....
I appreciate your time in reading and knowing our side. Have a nice day guys!!!
This deal didn't pushes through. I gave them 3 kinds of audio commercial delivery for their "Sale" event and yet all them were taken for granted. They are big but disorganized. Evaluating our audio production has gone to different people. They listened to it. Most of them are not broadcasters. Marketing, broadcasting and narrowcasting are three different fields under advertising. Before they called me, they already heard our audio production sample works. They should know how to value and understand ones business. I don't want to name the mall but dealing with them is like hell. Most suppliers don't want to deal with them because of their terms of payment. They pay their supplier 90 days. If you are small, you'll not gonna survive. We can consider the small ones but they are big. Why pay after 90 days if you can pay on or before 30 days? If you put all the accounts payable for suppliers together and put the money in the bank for a while; then expect a big value of its interest. That interest is another source of profit. It doesn't really sound an ethical business dealing. It sounded so greedy. That's why I asked them, is it's a 90 day term or not? They said, it's COD. If it's a 90-day term, then I'll back out. Although it wasn't a 90-day term, still they made a bad dealing. What a company....
Commercial TV stations can’t really survive and can’t make money without the advertisers. Advertisers and their agencies are the ones doing the buying of TV spots. In order for the advertisers to buy from TV, this broadcasting company needs to have good contents. Part of this content is getting talents. So TV hires talents to entertain the market. This market is also the target of the advertisers. When one of the talents becomes famous, an increase in talent fee which is called market value is expected. Later on, this talent will be hired by an advertiser as the endorser of their product/service.
In this situation, we can say that “Without the Advertisers, there will be no Talents.” In reality, the talents become famous because of the advertisers. If you’re one of those advertisers that made the talent popular and later gets the talent to endorse your product/service; and the talent asks for a high talent fee that you can’t afford because of you budget; then that’s the funny part. Bidding will be the next thing and would make you as an advertiser feel bad because you understand the origin of talents. People don’t look back to the origin and its principle “existence precedes essence.” It’s a cycle. The originator is always forgotten.
Subliminal messages are words, images, or sounds that might appear in television or radio commercials, TV shows or movies, print ads or recorded music. Usually when subliminal messages are seen or heard, they’re not recognized for what they are. In fact they may be ignored by the conscious brain and be beyond the level of conscious perception.
In the case of subliminal images, for CADIO most witnesses of crimes can’t really remember the suspects if the turnover of events happened very fast. For audio, singers learn the lyrics of a song by repetition of its music. Active listening makes a person memorize its audio content or the lyrics of a song. What if the audience is not listening at all? That’s fine. Hearing is the next big thing and an opportunity to achieve recall. If it doesn’t have a strategy to achieve recall, then this can only be a subliminal kind of message that has a less impact. This also suggests that subliminal messages may not work since they may never be consciously perceived. Hearing a message is perceived subconsciously or unconsciously. So hearing a commercial could not gain a recall but if it is done strategically; then a high recall is expected. Kids in the 70’s and 80’s can sing commercial jingles on TV because there were no remote controls back then.
Hearing something unconsciously could be a subliminal type of message. It would gain higher value once you incorporate a strategy of four (4) audio message repetitions basing on its AST (average staying time) of audiences in a narrowcast coverage or commercial establishment.
AIDA is an acronym used in sales, marketing and advertising that describes a common list of events that may occur when a consumer engages with an advertisement. The 4 spots represent AIDA. The 1st spot that the shopper hears is A – Attention, 2nd time he hears it is I – Interest, the 3rd time is D-Desire (marketing)/Decision (sales) and the 4th time is A – Action. According to Herbert E. Krugman there are only three levels of exposure in psychology, not media terms: Curiosity, recognition and decision. Reference: Effective Frequency. But in advertising, it takes 4 repetitions to get a good recall. Definitely, 4 is better and productive than 3. 4-spots must be the standard to reach a higher value on advertising investment. This strategy is better than radio, TV, billboard, placements of subliminal messages and it’s the best point-of-purchase advertising. In fact, the last time I dealt with media buyers was in 2001 and they gave a lot of advice on how to do it but this strategy of standardizing a targeted 4 spots per hour per brand were not part of my presentation back then. I just collected all their thoughts and did a further study.
Guerrilla marketing is an advertising strategy in which low-cost unconventional means (graffiti, sticker bombing, flash mobs) are utilized, often in a localized fashion or large network of individual cells, to convey or promote a product or an idea. The term guerrilla marketing is easily traced to guerrilla warfare which utilizes atypical tactics to achieve a goal in a competitive and unforgiving environment.A traditional advertising and a non-guerilla marketing but has a high value approach is the TV brands positioned within shows like Eat Bulaga or WilTimeBigTime. This will really reach the highest exposure and value in advertising. It’s a public and private captive market. Since cadio is audio, we discovered some ways that could be a guerilla marketing strategy.
Guerilla marketing for cadio is maximizing the ceiling and wall speakers and come-up with high-attention getters.
Three Types of Attention Getters in Audio and Video
2. CADIOjocks…………………………………………. Amateur Talking Jocks
3. CADIOaudio-boothSystem………………….......… Mixer, Laptop with radio automated
software/DJ effects software/audio library, monitor, and equalizer
4. CADIOhosts…………………………………………. Amateur hosts
5. Headworn Mic for the CADIOjock………................. Wired Microphone
6. Wireless Mic for the CADIOhost…………............... Wireless Microphone
7. Wall Speakers……………………………………..… Sound is synchronized & same with
the outside speakers
8. Ceiling Speakers…………………………………. .. Sound is synchronized & same with
the outside speakers
9. Contest……………………………………………… Small prizes are in kind
10. CADIOteam…………………………………………. Standard
2. CADIOjocks…………………………………………. American Talking Jocks and FM DJs
3. CADIOaudio-boothSystem…………………........… Mixer, Laptop with radio automated
software/DJ effects software/audio library, monitor, equalizer, and extra lighting system (in
4. CADIOhosts…………………………………………. Professional or celebrity hosts
5. Headworn Mic for the CADIOjock………................. Wireless Microphone
6. Wireless Mic for the CADIOhost…………............... Wireless Microphone
7. Wall Speakers……………………………………...... Sound is synchronized & same with the
8. Ceiling Speakers…………………………………...... Sound is synchronized & same with
the outside speakers
9. Contest……………………………………………….. Big prizes are in kind and in cash
10. CADIOteam………………………………………….. High standard
Cadio came from the concept of broadcasting. This is the time and place when a message is heard in a narrowcast coverage. The main source here are the cables. These are the cables of the ceiling and wall speakers. This process and system of dissiminating messages is called narrowcasting. Cadio doesn't use large broadcasting transmitters. TV & radio broadcasting uses cables and transmitters to narrowcast a message to a particular place or group of targeted market and make something known to the public. YourDictionary says that narrowcast is to transmit, as by cable, programs confined to the interests of a specific group of viewers, subscribers, or listeners, such as physicians, businesspeople, or teenagers. Likewise, cadio uses cables of ceiling and wall speakers bringing music, information and entertainment programs to the interests of specific groups inside a narrowcast coverage (also commercial establishments). The main example of narrowcasting was the installation of the cabvision network in London's black cabs which show limited pre-recorded television programmed interspersed with targeted advertising to taxicab passengers. Unlike the cabvision, cadio music and commercial programs are in FM broadcasting sound format. Based on wikipedia's article on cabvision, it is said that this innovation started in 2000 (cabvision on Wikipedia). Going back to cadio, before the name was given, the concept of it was first called "radio type booth" in the early 80"s in Makati Cinema Square Philippines. Then in 1999 it was named cadio bringing the two words together, cable and radio; because the sound of it when heard over the ceiling speakers of a narrowcast coverage is like an FM radio. Besides, around 90% of all the FM radio audio systems and devices are also what cadio uses. Why cable? Because to come-up with an FM radio sound, cadio needs cables to narrowcast. Unlike radio, it uses around 80% transmitters and radio set receivers. Check cadio history in a Philippine Newspaper article, Manila Bulletin and discover why cadio came first before cabvision.
If the Philippines have only the capital to promote and support its people's concepts, innovations, inventions, and having the right people to deal with, cadio could have been the main reference of narrowcasting not cabvision.
In this case, CADIO device and system is the FIRST one to do the NARROWCASTING and first batch of CADIOjocks like Andy Gold, Big Brian, Rick Stryker, John Lemon, Mark Detail and Cris Cross were the FRIST batch of NARROWCASTERS.
First of all, I'd like to acknowledge all the people in the advertising agencies and media buyers who gave me suggestions and comments on how to improve the CADIO innovation: Michelle Sario, Nap Carrao, Louie Rogacion, Enrico Sales, Joseph Carl Briones, Onel Querijero, Jane Angeles, Memo Moreno, May Bernarte, Pebbles Posadas, Ma. Criseda Cepeda, and Sherwin Bautista. Thank you so much. Back in the early 2000, I did some presentation to ad agencies and media buyers. For the record, here are some of the objections, suggestions and comments that I received from them:
Going back, let's now try to understand "The Fundamentals of Selling." Basically, Logic Makes People Think – Emotion Makes People Act. Tom Hopkins believes that sales people must learn to Arouse Emotions & Don’t Sell Logic. But for me, it could be an emotional or logical way that can persuade a prospect into buying. It still depends. Let's analyze. When you sell something to an individual who is not so technical about what he/she is buying; then the best way to persuade him/her is through emotional selling. Otherwise, technical people want more facts and rationality on its benefits which is a sign of logical selling. Besides, most of them are in the corporate world. Meaning, it’s not only one who makes the decision but it goes to different people within the corporation. Ad agencies and media buyers are technical people and the best strategy for them is logical and a little of emotional selling. If they are not interested with your proposal or offer because they think their client’s product/service does not fit with it; then they might just ask you to provide them with a REACH survey that could give them satisfaction. Traditionally, advertisers will base their decisions on logical stuff (specifically REACH survey), especially if it's a new concept that is being offered. You need to build credibility and good stats on what you are offering. Emotion sells when you give samples on how you can make their target market purchase their products or services. One sample is by letting them imagine how the ad campaign would work by having a creative content that will surely make the consumers buy. We should also consider the quantity of effort in evaluating the proposal. Your project must have good media mileage/value and shouldn't waste their time. If they see a future in your offer, then they will ask for more facts that will lead you into a relationship selling.
Now if the media buyer’s income would turned out to be low when dealing with a non-traditional medium while the commission of the traditional one is absolutely high, and its effort is almost the same with the other one; then they would rather prefer to work with the medium that will give them benefits and probably more income, right? When an advertiser is used with the traditional one, a little explanation or defense is needed to get its approval whereas the non-trad will go through a long process, which will waste the time of media buyers. So the traditional medium, wins. If you are a non-trad, you should come-up with a practical approach in dealing with media buyers. It's not all about the benefits that the advertisers and their consumers to be considered but also the media buyers as well. Here, you must balance everything; starting from the consumers, to media buyers and lastly the advertisers. This is why a saturation drive for narrowcasting in different commercial establishments is needed to have a huge market. This will give media buyers more income and benefits.
Well I guess, it is simple as knowing the traffic flow by just observing the market behavior and later position the streamers in areas where there are more people passing or staying. This is the same principle when it is applied in playing an audio commercial within a supermarket. You don’t need a REACH survey.
What about flyers and posters? Even you position them in visible places, can you really justify that people will really read your ad? How many papers are wasted?
Logical selling is not all about surveys, it is just giving the prospect a valid reason why buy the idea or the item. Logic is a science that deals with the principles and criteria of validity of inference and demonstration. It is the science of the formal principles of reasoning. So logic is more of the science or correct reasoning.
Let us now include logical selling point in the advertising strategy. An advertising strategy could come-out once you have a SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity & threat) analysis. For instance, after having the SWOT analysis, you came to the point of having a “captive market” advertising strategy for supermarkets. Using a logical statement, your conclusion came-out to be: “playing audio commercial in a supermarket by maximizing its ceiling speakers is a good “captive market,” advertising strategy. What’s the reason? Because people got no choice but to hear your audio commercial once it is played and heard over its supermarkets’ ceiling speakers.
Now what is proposition? It is a statement in propositional logic which may be either true or false.
Let’s base it first here:
- Premise: "Apples are a type of fruit."
- Premise: "All types of fruit are food."
- Conclusion: "Therefore, apples are food."
So here’s a proposition for the advertising strategy:
- Captive market in supermarket is maximizing the ceiling speakers.
- All ceiling speakers give its consumers no choice, but to hear the advertiser’s audio commercial.
- Therefore, captive market in supermarket is giving its consumers no choice but to hear the advertiser’s audio commercial (by maximizing the ceiling speakers).
In this sense, as long as it’s a “captive market,” where advertisers can witness the consumers who can hear its audio commercials; then that’s the best advertising strategy. If it is possible in supermarkets’ ceiling/wall speakers; then it can also be done in other commercial establishments. Here, I recommend “Narrowcasting using CADIO.”